In classical conditioning, the organism is relatively: a) active b) alert c) passive d) unconscious

In classical conditioning, the organism is relatively:

a) active

b) alert

c) passive

d) unconscious

Taste aversion studies suggest that:

a) organisms are prepared to make some associations more readily than others

b) learned associations are the same across species

c) learned associations are all basically unprepared

d) prepared, unprepared and contraprepared associations are all accomplished in the same way

According to Bandura, human behavior results from:

a) internal, conflicting forces

b) control from the environment, ie reinforcement and punishment

c) interactions between behaviors and the conditions that control the behaviors

d) cognitive factors only

The theories of Hull, Spence and Mowrer can be seen as _____ models, while Tolman’s theory can be seen as a more ____ model

a) reductionist; mechanical

b) mechanical; rationalist

c) reductionist; holistic

d) cognitive; mechanical

Secondary reinforcers are :

a) ineffective at motivating behavior

b) innate motivators

c) stimuli that are not as important as primary reinforcers

d) stimuli consistently associated with reinforcement

Bindra’s model of motivation includes both ____ and ____ as components of a central motive state

a) drives; cognitive maps

b) habits; drives

c) drives; incentives

d) cognitions; expectancies

For incentives, ______ incentives generate approach behavior, and _____ incentives generate withdrawal behavior

a) motivation; punishment

b) positive; negative

c) weak; strong

d) positive; negative

An example of a nociceptive stimuli would be:

a) the smell of a rose

b) a strongly bitter taste

c) a soft sound

d) a pastel painting

Hebb suggests that moderate changes in arousal are

a) reinforcing

b) habituated

c) extinguished

d) discouraged

A cognitive interpretation of effects of isolation offered by Bruner includes the idea:

a) deprivation of varied environments prevent development of models for evaluating information

b) social contact are not important in developing information evaluation models

c) isolation allows for a richer, more varied imagination to develop in children

d) models for evaluating information develop in adulthood

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