A ten-year-old boy is brought to clinic by his mother who states that the boy has been listless and not eating. She also notes that he has been easily bruising without trauma as he says he is too tired to go out and play.He says his bones hurt sometimes. Mother states the child has had intermittent fevers that respond to acetaminophen.Maternal history negative for pre, intra, or post-partum problems. Child’s past medical history negative and he easily reached developmental milestones.Physical exam reveals a thin, very pale child who has bruises on his arms and legs in no particular pattern. The APRN orders complete blood count (CBC), and complete metabolic profile (CMP). The CBC revealed Hemoglobin of 6.9/dl, hematocrit of 19%, and platelet count of 80,000/mm3.The CMP demonstrated a blood urea nitrogen (BUN) of 34m g/dl and creatinine of 2.9 mg/dl. The APRN recognizes that the patient appears to have acute leukemia and renal failure and immediately refers the patient to the Emergency Room where a pediatric hematologist has been consulted and is waiting for the boy and his mother. The diagnosis of acute lymphoblastic leukemia(ALL)was made after extensive testing.
Question 1 of 2:
What is ALL?
Question 2 of 2:
How does renal failure occur in some patients with ALL?